- THE HISTORY
- Considering its name, actually
East Nusa Tenggara archipelago is believed to have been the center
of industrial trade and exchange two thousand years ago when
the island of Timor functioned as the source for the original
stock of sandalwood trees established in India (or even in China)
and there after developed as an important commercial tree. The
trees grow in some islands (mostly in Timor Island now and used
to be in Sumba) and the quality is still judged superlative.
- Now the product is not only
used for handicraft, but is also manufactured into sandalwood
oil for export commodity for the raw material of perfumes. Centuries
ago, ships from all over the world visited these islands in search
of spices and sandalwood.
- The ancient Chinese travel
chronicle Hsing Cha Sheng Can mentions that from the 6th
to the 9th AD many ships from the chinese mainland came here
to barter ceramics, yarns, and silks for sandalwood.
- Can Yu Kua wrote in the Chu Fan Shih in
1225, that Timor Island had links with Java as far as the trade
of sandalwood was concered. Evidence of those old trade links
with Java is found in the Dance of Lendo Maja, in Sabu.
Evidence of early trading with China is provide by the antique
Chinese ceramics found in this area.
- Pilliot Lamster believes that China had engaged in
the sandalwood trade since the early period of Christian era.
O. W. Walters similarly believe that China had connections
with Timor in the first century of the Christian era.
- Merchant from India also come
to these island to buy sandalwood, bringing horses which they
bought in Arabia to be sold to the people of Sumba. That is ostensibly
the reason why there are so many horses in Sumba The Europeans
came to East Nusa Tenggara and bought sandalwood oil to treat
- In 1520, a Portuguese flotilla
led by Alfonso de Abreu and serrao, sailed to Ternate,
intending to defeat the Sultan of Ternate and take over his sphere
of influence, which stretched from the southern Philippines to
Sangihe Talaud, Maluku and the Solor Island.
- Losing their orientation,
they arrived at Solor. They had failed destination, but had discovered
East Nusa Tenggara, the source of sandalwood.
- They set up a trading post
in Lamakera, on Solor Island, as a kind transit harbor between
Maluku and Malacca.
- In 1566, the Portuguese set
up a trading post, know as fort Hendricus, where sandalwood was
- During the Portuguese period,
many names were changed. Nusa Nipa became Flores, and
Tanah Wutun, or Tanjung, was renamed Cabo da
Flores. Nusa Wuo was changed into Sumba, and Nusa
Eda into Rote or Roti, which was presumably
the result of a misunderstanding involving a name Rote. Nusa
Timu became Tmor.
- In addition, the Portuguese
did theur best to convert the people to Roman Catholicism as
present on ever Portuguese ship. By 1597, thousands of people
on these island had been converted to Christianity.
- The little town of Kupang
is know among students of maritime history. At around the end
of the 1 8th century, Kupang was visited by a sloop of the British
Ship HMS "Bounty" skippered by Captain Thigh,
who has braved the Pacific Ocean after the infamous mutiny. On
his arrival at Kupang, Captain Bligh received he help
of the Dutch, who provided him with a ship to return to England.
- In 1592, and inhabitant of
Larantuka, of Portuguese origin, whose mother had been ill-treated,
asked the Dutch for help to fight the portuguese. The clutch
attacked Fort Hendricus and defeated the Portuguese.
- The Dutch arrived at East
Nusa Tenggara for the first time in the 17th century. In 1613,
Apollonius Scotte led a war expedition to
- East Nusa Tenggara to figh
the Portuguese. War broke out and Solor fell to the Dutch in
1653. Through further victory, the Dutch consolidated their position
in Kupang in 1657.
- Fort Hendricus became the
headquarters of Dutch East India Company. Like the Portuguese
before them, the Dutch brought their own Lutheran Ministers to
the island and became the information center in East Nusa Tenggara.
- After that the people living
in the surroundings of Kupang had converted from Catholicism
to Protestantism. The Protestant center was move to Kupang. Meanwhile,
the Portuguese moved the seat of their authority to Rote and
Sawu islands. More over, many of the other island was being subjugated
and put under Portuguese control.
- In the months of May to June
1642, the Portuguese were sending their best troops from Larantuka
to attack Timor Island. The Portuguese commander;, Fransisco
Fernandes, Ordered his men to kill all the king in the conquered
- In 1739, a new power group,
called the black Portuguese or Tropaas, emerged in Timor.
Until the middle of the 19th century, clashes between the area.
The situation continued until 1854, when the Treaty of Timor
was signed between the Dutch and Portuguese, dividing Timor into
half west to be ruled by the Dutch, and an east by the Portuguese.
Larantuka and surrounding areas were ceded to the Dutch, whereas
the barren territory of Oekusi was relinquished to the Portuguese.
Click here to see :
West Nusa Tenggara Map
East Nusa Tenggara Map
(There are 33 High Resolution Maps on here)
West Nusa Tenggara Tourism
East Nusa Tenggara Tourism
(There are complete info about 33 provincies : Object Tourisms, Hotels, Travel agents, etc)