District Ngada offers unirrigated highland estates, which climate due the altitude of 900 to 1.200 above sea level combine with very fertile volcanic topsoil is suitable for the farming of high value crops such as: mandarin, orange, apple, lengkeng leychi, avocado, mangoes broccoli, strawberry asparagus, paprica, zuchinni, lattus, etc.
Approximately 1,000 ha land in Bajawa, Mataloko and Mulakoli has been cultivated by small holders. Due to the lack of marketing and transportation means, the utilisation of the highland estates has never been optimized. On this highland estates the farmer has produced yearly 200 ton avocado, 150 ton mandarin, 100 ton fashion fruits and supplied to the local market.
The additional 2,000 ha highland in Inegena and Maronggela has never been cultivated.
Down the hill from the highland, at the level of 500 to 900 meter above sea, there is plenty full arable land ample to permit cultivation of a range of crops, such as: coffee, cocoa, cashew nuts, vanilla, peanuts, soy beans, candle nuts, coconuts, mangoes, rambutan, potatoes, tomatoes, melon etc.
Those hillside arable land are spread in Malawawo 1000 ha, Kuruhoko 1000 ha, Keligejo 2000 ha, Nagerawe 2000 ha, Wangka 1000 ha, Ratedao 1000 ha and Lambo 2000 ha.
The Mbay lowland area at the North coast of Ngada District is strategically situated within the watershed of the Aesesa river, which covers a riverbed area of 13,000 square kilometre, comprises of 90 brunches and has a total length of 630 kilometer.
The existing dam, only 13 kilometer away from the estuary, supplies 2,500 litre per second mainly to irrigate 4,000 ha rice field.
Currently the government attempt to build a more adequate dam in Boarebhe - Aesesa further up stream, with the plan storage capacity of 100 million cubic meter water. This facility enable the extension of the rice field from 4,000 ha to 12,000 ha.
Including with this plan, the government also plan to build a dam more further up stream in Kuruhoko, which is ample to extend another 1,000 ha of the Soa rice field from the existing 1,200 ha.
According to the study (1997), the main development opportunity of an Australian Study Mbay IEDZ is cattle.
The population of cattle in Mbay IEDZ (1996) was 49,000. There were also 52,000 buffalo, 50,000 horse and 300,000 sheep/goat. This compare to 690,000 in West Timor, there is considerable potential to increase the cattle population to 500,000 or more.
However the most likely short-medium term development will be in fattening imported cattle for shipment to Surabaya and Jakarta or for Slaughter in Mbay. But for the long term deal it will be preverable to develop breeding centre in IEDZ, which can supply not only the local demand but also to the feed lots in the rest of Eastern Indonesia.
To support the short term development a serious corporation from Northern Territory will accept the BOOT arrangement to built and operate a quarantine facility at Marapokot.
Ken Sawers (1997) recommended strategy for large scale cattle production in Mbay IEDZ based the nucleus estates smallholder (NES) programme applied successfully elsewhere in Indonesia.
He further recommended the NT Government to set up a small scale silage production project in the plasma areas.
There is ample fodder for livestock in the island's extensive grasslands, fields and scrub forests. Particularly the District of Ngada the administration provide approximately 20,000 ha of arable land suitable for development of miniranches for up to 15,000 heads of cattle.
To the cattle production the Department of Transmigration attempts to transmigrate 1000 household to Maronggela, Uluwae, Nagerawe and Lambo. Each household is scheduled to receive 9 cattle on its 4.5 ha estates. The first stage of the project, scheduled for 200 household in Maronggela Site 1 has been constructed, and should be transfered by the beneficiaries later this year.
Aside the cattle production the administration is also concerned with the development of other animal husbandry, including the dear farming.
NORTRADE PTY LTD, an Australian Company is looking forward to developing a dear farming industry. To meet its requirement the administration allocate totally 500 ha arable land in Seghonaba, Kinde and Torong Padang.
Commercial utilisation of fish resources in Mbay IEDZ and vicinity was first initiated in Maumere (Sikka District) and Larantuka (East Flores District). While the utilisation by the traditional fishing community has been commencing in Ende (Ende District), Bekek (Ngada District) and Labuan Bajo (Manggarai District) since decades.
Today, the commercial fishery operation in Maumere has been closed down and shifted to Larantuka, while the traditional operation have been developed increasingly.
The fisheries in Mbay IEDZ and vicinity are diverse comprising a number of important products including: grouper snapper, squid, skipjack, lobster, tripang (sea cucumber), tuna, barramundi, milk fish seeds, and other coral ornament fishes.
A total number of 30,700 ton sea food, worth approximately US$ 45 million was caught in 1996.
Skipjack and tuna fishing continues to dominate the fisheries industry with landing of 7,300 tons, worth ea=stimated US$ 12 million.
Red snappers, groupers and barramundi fishing the second most important species caught, with total landing of 2,150 tons, worth estimates US$ 10 million.
The next most important species were prawn lobster, tripang, shark fin, napoleon and gold band snappers.
Though Mbay IEDZ has quite promising land suitable for the aqua culture development, the || utilisatios far beyond the production capacity.
The total area of the flat land from Nggolonio. Waymburung to Nanga Teke is estimated at 1,200 ha provide ranging in size from 1 to 100 ha farmers.
PT. BANGUN SELARAS ALAM initially proposed to develop a salt production ponds on 700 ha land in 700 ha in Wayburung has due to the recent devaluation change the target into aqua culture industry, and is seeking a joint venture partner to handle the earthworks and construction of the irrigation infrastructure.
In order to provide land based facility, the Administration of Ngada District allocate 200 ha land for the development of the fishery harbour and its supporting facilities shipyard fish processing industrial estate, fishery training centre.

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